In one small scale clinical trial of depressed patients, an improvement of symptoms which included anxiety, lack of drive and desire was observed. [16] In patients with dysthymia , unipolar , and bipolar depression significant improvement was observed. [16] In this series of studies, mesterolone lead to a significant decrease in luteinizing hormone and testosterone levels. [16] In another study, 100 mg mesterolone cipionate was administered twice monthly. [17] With regards to plasma testosterone levels, there was no difference between the treated versus untreated group, and baseline luteinizing hormone levels were minimally affected. [17]

Proviron has four distinct uses in the world of bodybuilding. The first being the result of its structure. It is 5-alpha reduced and not capable of forming estrogen, yet it nonetheless has a much higher affinity for the aromatase enzyme (which converts testosterone to estrogen) than testosterone does. That means in administering it with testosterone or another aromatizable compound, it prevents estrogen build-up because it binds to the aromatase enzyme very strongly, thereby preventing these steroids from interacting with it and forming estrogen. So Mesterolone use has the extreme benefit of reducing estrogenic side-effects and water retention noted with other steroids, and as such still help to provide mostly lean gains. Its also been suggested that it may actually downgrade the actual estrogen receptor making it doubly effective at reducing circulating estrogen levels.