Injectable steroids are injected into muscle tissue, not into the veins. They are slowly released from the muscles into the rest of the body, and may be detectable for months after last use. Injectable steroids can be oil-based or water-based. Injectable anabolic steroids which are oil-based have longer half-life than water-based steroids. Both steroid types have much longer half-lives than oral anabolic steroids. And this is proving to be a drawback for injectables as they have high probability of being detected in drug screening since their clearance times tend to be longer than orals. Athletes resolve this problem by using injectable testosterone early in the cycle then switch to orals when approaching the end of the cycle and drug testing is imminent.
The device irradiates samples with alpha particles and maps the spectra of X-rays that are re-emitted for determining the elemental composition of samples.  Curiosity 's APXS was developed by the Canadian Space Agency .  MacDonald Dettwiler (MDA) , the Canadian aerospace company that built the Canadarm and RADARSAT , were responsible for the engineering design and building of the APXS. The APXS science team includes members from the University of Guelph , the University of New Brunswick , the University of Western Ontario , NASA , the University of California, San Diego and Cornell University .  The APXS instrument takes advantage of particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and X-ray fluorescence , previously exploited by the Mars Pathfinder and the Mars Exploration Rovers .